Protein kinases that phosphorylate activated G protein-coupled receptors.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that specifically recognize agonist-occupied, activated G protein-coupled receptor proteins as substrates. Phosphorylation of an activated receptor by a GRK terminates signaling by that receptor, by initiating the uncoupling of the receptor from heterotrimeric G proteins. Six distinct mammalian GRKs are known, which differ in tissue distribution and in regulatory properties. The intracellular localization of GRKs to membrane-bound receptor substrates is the most important known regulatory feature of these enzymes. Rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) requires a post-translationally added farnesyl isoprenoid to bind to light-activated rhodopsin. The beta-adrenergic receptor kinases (GRK2 and GRK3) associate with heterotrimeric G protein beta gamma-subunits, released upon receptor activation of G proteins, for membrane anchorage. The recently-described GRKs 4, 5, and 6 comprise a distinct subgroup of GRKs. These kinases utilize distinct mechanisms for membrane localization, which are just beginning to be defined. All GRKs appear to play the same general cellular role of desensitizing activated G protein-coupled receptors, but utilize distinctly individual means to the same end.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Premont, RT; Inglese, J; Lefkowitz, RJ

Published Date

  • February 1995

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 9 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 175 - 182

PubMed ID

  • 7781920

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0892-6638

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1096/fasebj.9.2.7781920


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States