Enhanced type 1 immunity after secondary viral challenge in mice primed as neonates.
The goal of infant immunization against viral infection is to develop protective long term memory responses. Priming neonatal mice with a low dose of Cas-Br-E murine leukemia virus (Cas) results in adult-like, type 1 protective responses. However, other studies suggest that Ag priming of neonates leads to an increase in type 2 secondary responses even when primary responses were type 1. We assessed whether type 1 CD8+ T cell-mediated responses developed in murine neonates are maintained after secondary challenge with Cas in adulthood. Despite the induction of significant anti-viral CD8+-mediated cytotoxic T lymphocyte and IFN-gamma responses, initial neonatal priming led to a lower frequency of virus-specific T cells compared with adult priming. Adult frequencies were reached in mice primed as neonates only after secondary challenge in adulthood. A nonspecific and transient CD4+-mediated IL-4 response was present in all groups after secondary challenge with Cas or medium, indicating that this rise in type 2 cytokine production was not unique to mice that had been primed as neonates. Rather, type 1 anti-viral memory CD8+ T cell responses developed in neonatal mice are stable, protective, and enhanced after secondary challenge.
Fadel, SA; Ozaki, DA; Sarzotti, M
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