Nucleotide- and stoichiometry-dependent DNA supercoiling by reverse gyrase.
Reverse gyrase is a unique type IA topoisomerase that can introduce positive supercoils into DNA. We have investigated some of the biochemical properties of Archaeoglobus fulgidus reverse gyrase. It can mediate three distinct supercoiling reactions depending on the adenine nucleotide cofactor that is present in the reaction. Besides the ATP-driven positive supercoiling reaction, the enzyme can introduce negative supercoils with a nonhydrolyzable analog, adenylyl imidodiphosphate. In the presence of ADP the plasmid DNA is relaxed almost completely, leaving a very low level of positive supercoiling. Surprisingly, the final supercoiling extent for all three distinct reactions depends on the stoichiometry of enzyme to DNA. This dependence is not due to the difference of reaction rate, suggesting that the amount of enzyme bound to DNA is an important determinant for the final supercoiling state of the reaction product. Reverse gyrase also displays exquisite sensitivity toward temperature. Raising the reaction temperatures from 80 to 85 degrees C, both of which are within the optimal growth temperature of A. fulgidus, greatly increases enzyme activity for all the supercoiling reactions. For the reaction with AMPPNP, the product is a hypernegatively supercoiled DNA. This dramatic enhancement of the reverse gyrase activity is also correlated with the appearance of DNA in a pre-melting state at 85 degrees C, likely due to the presence of extensively unwound regions in the plasmid. The possible mechanistic insights from these findings will be presented here.
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