Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene expression in human peritoneal macrophages is suppressed by extra-abdominal trauma.
BACKGROUND: Trauma is believed to activate immunocytes but paradoxically also increases the risk of intraperitoneal infection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate these events by evaluating changes in the cytokine control networks of human peritoneal macrophages (PM phi) early after trauma. DESIGN: Case-control study comparing cytokine messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by PM phi from patients with extra-abdominal trauma with that of both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) and PM phi obtained from healthy individuals. SETTING: Level I trauma center and basic science laboratory in a university hospital center. PATIENTS: Six patients with polytrauma (Injury Severity Score, > or = 15) with clinically negative diagnostic peritoneal lavages performed on routine indications at admission to the emergency department and six healthy age- and sex-matched individuals undergoing inguinal herniorrhaphy under local anesthesia. INTERVENTIONS: Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from diagnostic peritoneal lavages in trauma patients. Identical lavages were performed through the hernia sac in the control group. MEASUREMENTS: Cellular RNA was assayed for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta, IL-6, and IL-10 message by semiquantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Normal PM phi expressed high levels of TNF-alpha mRNA relative to PBM, but expression of the other proinflammatory cytokines was equivalent to that of PBM. Peritoneal macrophage expression of TNF-alpha mRNA was markedly (64-fold) decreased after trauma (P < .001), when PBM expression of IL-10 mRNA was increased (P = .03). CONCLUSIONS: Human PM phi constitutively show high levels of TNF-alpha message expression, and this is down-regulated by polytrauma. This might constitute a functionally "primed" state. If so, TNF-alpha down-regulation might contribute to functional PM phi suppression after systemic injury.
Hauser, CJ; Lagoo, S; Lagoo, A; Hale, E; Hardy, KJ; Barber, WH; Bass, JD; Poole, GV
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