Raw water characteristics and the selection of treatment configurations for particle removal
The particle-removal performance of several full-scale water treatment plants is evaluated using a systems analysis approach. Sources of particle-volume concentration in raw water are discussed, and it is suggested that 'dissolved' organic materials in raw water may be an important source of particle volume when coagulation precedes liquid-solid separation. Different inorganic coagulants were found to produce different solid phases when added to water. After distribution of particle sizes in a raw water was adjusted for changes resulting from dissolved organic carbon in the water, configurations of the unit processes chosen in practice were found in most cases to correspond to configurations calculated to be cost-optimal.