Finite element analysis of bioelectric phenomena.
This article reviews the application of finite element methods to models of bioelectric phenomena. The models represent the electrical fields created in the body as a result of membrane current sources or external current applied for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. We formulate the governing equations for these models and then derive the finite element equations for the generalized bioelectric problem. The 32 papers reviewed here, all those appearing in the literature to date, cover the areas of electrocardiology, therapeutic and functional electrical stimulation in the cerebellum, cochlea, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves, cardiac defibrillation, electrical impedance tomography, bidomain cardiac models, electroporation, and therapeutic electrical stimulation of bone. For each, we summarize the purpose of the study, the model details and assumptions, the major results, and the applicability of the study. The models are then considered as a group to critique the appropriateness of the finite element method, the means of implementation, and the factors affecting accuracy, thus providing an overview of the state of finite element modeling of bioelectric phenomena.
Miller, CE; Henriquez, CS
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