Potential distribution in three-dimensional periodic myocardium--Part II: Application to extracellular stimulation.
Modeling potential distribution in the myocardium treated as a periodic structure implies that activation from high-current stimulation with extracellular electrodes is caused by the spatially oscillating components of the transmembrane potential. This hypothesis is tested by comparing the results of the model with experimental data. The conductivity, fiber orientation, the extent of the region, the location of the pacing site, and the stimulus strength determined from experiments are components of the model used to predict the distributions of potential, potential gradient, and the transmembrane potential throughout the region. Next, assuming that a specific value of the transmembrane potential is necessary and sufficient to activate fully repolarized myocardium, the model provides an analytical relation between large-scale field parameters, such as gradient and current density, and small-scale parameters, such as transmembrane potential. This relation is used to express the stimulation threshold in terms of gradient or current density components and to explain its dependence upon fiber orientation. The concept of stimulation threshold is generalized to three dimensions, and an excitability surface is constructed, which for cardiac muscle is approximately conical in shape. The numerical values of transmembrane potential and stimulation thresholds calculated using asymptotic analysis are in agreement with the results of animal experiments, confirming the validity of this approach to study the electrophysiology of periodic cardiac muscle.
Krassowska, W; Frazier, DW; Pilkington, TC; Ideker, RE
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