Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vitro detection of cervical precancers.
In this study, we investigate the potential of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to differentiate cervical precancers from normal tissues, inflammation and metaplasia and to differentially diagnose low-grade and high-grade precancers. Near infrared Raman spectra were measured from 36 biopsies from 18 patients in vitro. Detection algorithms were developed and evaluated relative to histopathologic examination. Algorithms based on empirically selected peak intensities, ratios of peak intensities and a combination of principal component analysis for data reduction and Fisher discriminant analysis for classification were investigated. Spectral peaks were tentatively identified from measured spectra of potential chromophores. Empirically selected normalized intensities can differentiate precancers from other tissues with an average sensitivity and specificity of 88 +/- 4% and 92 +/- 4%. Ratios of unnormalized intensities can differentiate precancers from other tissues with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 88% and high-grade from low-grade lesions with a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Using multivariate methods, intensities at eight frequencies can be used to differentiate precancers from all other tissues with a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 92% in an unbiased test. Raman algorithms can potentially separate benign abnormalities such as inflammation and metaplasia from precancers. Comparison of tissue spectra to published and measured chromophore spectra indicate that the most likely primary contributors to the tissue spectra are collagen, nucleic acids, phospholipids and glucose 1-phosphate. These results suggest that near-infrared Raman spectroscopy can be used for cervical precancer diagnosis and may be able to accurately separate samples with inflammation and metaplasia from precancer.
Mahadevan-Jansen, A; Mitchell, MF; Ramanujam, N; Malpica, A; Thomsen, S; Utzinger, U; Richards-Kortum, R
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