Catheter ultrasound phased-array transducers for thermal ablation: a feasibility study.
The feasibility of catheter single-element ultrasound transducers for cardiac ablation has been shown previously. We describe the design and testing of catheter-sized linear phased arrays transducers for ultrasound ablation. One array has 86 PZT-4 elements operating at 8 MHz and 5 MHz. The overall array size is 14.9 mm by 3.1 mm (10 Fr). The other array has 50 PZT-5 elements operating at 4 MHz and is 17 mm by 3.1 mm (10 Fr). In order to produce the intensity needed to create lesions in heart tissue, we modified a real-time, 3D scanner to produce 100 Vpp 256-cycle transmit pulses at a pulse repetition frequency of 14.1 kHz. This made it possible for the PZT-4 and PZT-5 transducers to produce ISPTA of 3.26 W/cm2 and 142 W/cm2, respectively. When driving the transducers at high duty factor, the transmit circuitry in the scanner was damaged. A mechanically-focused transducer with the same dimensions as the PZT-4 transducer was built. When transmitting continuously at 9 MHz, it produced an ISPTA of 29.3 W/cm2. This created a lesion 5 mm across and 5 mm deep in beef tissue while raising the focal temperature 23 degrees C. Ablation is within the capabilities of a catheter phased array transducer integrated into a diagnostic ultrasound scanner.
Gentry, KL; Sachedina, N; Smith, SW
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