Real-time three-dimensional intracardiac echocardiography.
Using catheter-mounted 2-D array transducers, we have obtained real-time 3-D intracardiac ultrasound (US) images. We have constructed several transducers with 64 channels inside a 12 French catheter lumen operating at 5 MHz. The transducer configuration may be side-scanning or beveled, with respect to the long axis of the catheter lumen. We have also included six electrodes to acquire simultaneous electrocardiograms. Using an open-chest sheep model, we inserted the catheter into the cardiac chambers to study the utility of in vivo intracardiac 3-D scanning. Images obtained include a cardiac four-chamber view, mitral valve, pulmonic valve, tricuspid valve, interatrial septum, interventricular septum and ventricular volumes. We have also imaged two electrophysiological interventional devices in the right atrium, performed an in vitro ablation study, and viewed the pulmonary veins in vitro.
Light, ED; Idriss, SF; Wolf, PD; Smith, SW
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