Guidance of cardiac pacemaker leads using real time 3D ultrasound: feasibility studies.
We investigated the feasibility of the guidance of pacemaker lead implantation using the pacemaker lead stylet as an acoustic wave-guide combined with real time 3D ultrasound imaging. In one approach, with a 2.5 MHz transducer coupled to a stylet of a pacemaker lead, we used the stylet as a transmitter to track the vibrating tip in a 3D ultrasound scan. In another approach, we connected the stylet to a piezoelectric actuator vibrating in the range 0.5-5 kHz so that the tip of the stylet was imaged using the color Doppler feature of the real time 3D ultrasound scanner. In both approaches, tracking of the isolated stylet showed good accuracy. However, neither approach offered sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to detect the vibration within the lumen of an intact pacemaker lead.
Smith, SW; Booi, RC; Light, ED; Merdes, CL; Wolf, PD
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