Rigorous Modeling of ultrawideband VHF scattering from tree trunks over flat and sloped terrain
Three electromagnetic models are employed for the investigation of ultrawideband VHF scattering from tree trunks situated over flat and sloped terrain. Two of the models are numerical, each employing a frequency-domain integral-equation formulation solved via the method of moments (MoM). A body-of-revolution (BoR) MoM formulation is applied for a tree trunk on a flat terrain, implying that the BoR axis is perpendicular to the layers of an arbitrary layered-earth model. For the case of sloped terrain, the BoR model is inapplicable, and therefore the MoM solution is performed via general triangular-patch basis functions. Both MoM models are very accurate but are computationally expensive. Consequently, we also consider a third model, employing approximations based on the closed-form solution for scattering from an infinite dielectric cylinder in free space. The third model is highly efficient computationally and, despite the significant approximations, often yields accurate results relative to data computed via the reference MoM solutions. Data from the three models are considered, and several examples of application to remote sensing are addressed.
He, J; Geng, N; Nguyen, L; Carin, L
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