Arterial windkessel parameter estimation: a new time-domain method.
We developed and validated a new, more accurate, and easily applied method for calculating the parameters of the three-element Windkessel to quantitate arterial properties and to investigate ventriculoarterial coupling. This method is based on integrating the governing differential equation of the three-element Windkessel and solving for arterial compliance. It accounts for the interaction between characteristic impedance and compliance, an important phenomenon that has been ignored by previously implemented methods. The new integral method was compared with four previously published methods as well as a new independent linear least-squares analysis, using ascending aortic micromanometric and volumetric flow measurements from eight dogs. The parameters calculated by the new integral method were found to be significantly different from those obtained by the previous methods but did not differ significantly from maximum likelihood estimators obtained by a linear least-squares approach. To assess the accuracy of parameter estimation, pressure and flow waveforms were reconstructed in the time domain by numerically solving the governing differential equation of the three-element Windkessel model. Standard deviations of reconstructed waveforms from the experimental ensemble-averaged waveforms, which solely reflect the relative accuracy of the Windkessel parameters given by the various methods, were calculated. The new integral method invariably yielded the smallest error. These results demonstrate the improved accuracy of our new integral method in estimating arterial parameters of the three-element Windkessel.
Shim, Y; Pasipoularides, A; Straley, CA; Hampton, TG; Soto, PF; Owen, CH; Davis, JW; Glower, DD
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