A miniaturized catheter 2-D array for real-time, 3-D intracardiac echocardiography.
The design, fabrication, and characterization of a 112 channel, 5 MHz, two-dimensional (2-D) array transducer constructed on a six layer flexible polyimide interconnect circuit is described. The transducer was mounted in a 7 Fr (2.33 mm outside diameter) catheter for use in real-time intracardiac volumetric imaging. Two transducers were constructed: one with a single silver epoxy matching layer and the other without a matching layer. The center frequency and -6 dB fractional bandwidth of the transducer with a matching layer were 4.9 MHz and 31%, respectively. The 50 omega pitch-catch insertion loss was 80 dB, and the typical interelement crosstalk was -30 dB. The final element yield was greater than 97% for both transducers. The transducers were used to acquire real-time, 3-D images in an in vivo sheep model. We present in vivo images of cardiac anatomy obtained from within the coronary sinus, including the left and right atria, aorta, coronary arteries, and pulmonary veins. We also present images showing the manipulation of a separate electrophysiological catheter into the coronary sinus.
Lee, W; Idriss, SF; Wolf, PD; Smith, SW
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