Real-time 3D transesophageal echocardiography.
Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is an essential diagnostic tool in patients with poor transthoracic echocardiographic windows or when detailed imaging of structures distant from the chest wall is necessary. A real-time 3D TEE probe has been fabricated in our laboratory in order to increase the amount of information available during a transesophageal procedure. The 1 cm diameter esophageal probe utilizes a 2-dimensional, 5 MHz array at its tip with a 6.3 mm diameter aperture, including 504 active channels. The array has a periodic vernier geometry with an element pitch of 0.18 mm, built onto a multilayer flexible (MLF) interconnect circuit. In order to accommodate 504 channels within the device, a 1 m long Gore MicroFlat cable was utilized for wiring the MLF to the corresponding system connectors. Pulse-echo tests in a water tank have yielded a -6 dB bandwidth of 25.3%. Fully connected to the system through 3 m of cable, the probe shows an average 50 omega insertion loss of-85 dB with a standard deviation of 4 dB, as determined through pitch-catch measurements for a sampling of 10 elements. Using the completed 3D TEE probe with the Volumetrics Medical Imaging 3D scanner, real-time volumetric images of in vivo canine cardiac anatomy have been acquired, displaying atrial views, mitral valve function and interventional catheter guidance.
Pua, EC; Idriss, SF; Wolf, PD; Smith, SW
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