Structure, composition, and peptide binding properties of detergent soluble bilayers and detergent resistant rafts.
Lipid bilayers composed of unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), and cholesterol are thought to contain microdomains that have similar detergent insolubility characteristics as rafts isolated from cell plasma membranes. We chemically characterized the fractions corresponding to detergent soluble membranes (DSMs) and detergent resistant membranes (DRMs) from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol, compared the binding properties of selected peptides to bilayers with the compositions of DSMs and DRMs, used differential scanning calorimetry to identify phase transitions, and determined the structure of DRMs with x-ray diffraction. Compared with the equimolar starting material, DRMs were enriched in both SM and cholesterol. Both transmembrane and interfacial peptides bound to a greater extent to DSM bilayers than to DRM bilayers, likely because of differences in the mechanical properties of the two bilayers. Thermograms from 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol from 3 to 70 degrees C showed no evidence for a liquid-ordered to liquid-disordered phase transition. Over a wide range of osmotic stresses, each x-ray pattern from equimolar PC:SM:cholesterol or DRMs contained a broad wide-angle band at 4.5 A, indicating that the bilayers were in a liquid-crystalline phase, and several sharp low-angle reflections that indexed as orders of a single lamellar repeat period. Electron density profiles showed that the total bilayer thickness was 57 A for DRMs, which was approximately 5 A greater than that of 1:1:1 PC:SM:cholesterol and 10 A greater than the thickness of bilayers with the composition of DSMs. These x-ray data provide accurate values for the widths of raft and nonraft bilayers that should be important in understanding mechanisms of protein sorting by rafts.
Gandhavadi, M; Allende, D; Vidal, A; Simon, SA; McIntosh, TJ
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