Orientation of LamB signal peptides in bilayers: influence of lipid probes on peptide binding and interpretation of fluorescence quenching data.
The orientation in lipid bilayers of the signal sequence of the bacterial protein LamB was studied using binding, circular dichroism, and fluorescence quenching experiments. Measurements were made of binding modifications caused by the incorporation of lipid probes (brominated or nitroxide-labeled phospholipids) used in the parallax fluorescence quenching method of determining peptide penetration depth [Abrams, F. S., and London, E. (1992) Biochemistry 31, 5312-5322]. The signal peptide bound to a similar extent to neutral bilayers composed of either egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) or phosphatidylcholines brominated at various positions on their acyl chains. The fluorescence of a tryptophan in either the 18 or 24 position of the peptide was quenched more by bromines in the 6 and 7 than in the 9 and 10 positions on the lipid hydrocarbon chain. Parallax calculations showed that tryptophan-18 was located only 4 A from the hydrocarbon-water interface, consistent with the peptide adopting a "hammock" configuration in the bilayer, with both termini exposed to the aqueous phase and the central alpha-helix located near the hydrocarbon-water interface. In contrast, the incorporation of 10% nitroxide-labeled lipids into EPC bilayers modified peptide binding in a manner dependent on the position of the nitroxide on the hydrocarbon chain; 7-Doxyl PC reduced the percent peptide bound by about one-half, whereas 12-Doxyl PC had little effect on binding. These binding differences modified tryptophan quenching by these probes, making parallax analysis problematical. In the presence of the positively charged LamB peptide, the incorporation of negatively charged phospholipids into EPC bilayers increased the level of peptide binding and modified tryptophan quenching by nitroxide probes. These results suggest that the nitroxide probe could be partially excluded from negatively charged lipid domains where the peptide preferentially bound. Quite different binding and quenching results were obtained with a negatively charged peptide analogue, showing that the charge on both the peptide and bilayer affects peptide-nitroxide probe interactions.
Voglino, L; Simon, SA; McIntosh, TJ
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