Ultrashort laser pulse bioeffects and safety.
Recent studies of retinal damage due to ultrashort laser pulses have shown that less energy is required for retinal damage for pulses shorter than 1 ns than that for longer pulses. It has also been shown that more energy is required for near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths than in the visible because the light focuses behind the retina, requiring more energy to produce a damaging fluence on the retina. We review the progress made in determining the trends in retinal damage from laser pulses of 1 ns to 100 fs in the visible and NIR wavelength regimes. We have determined the most likely damage mechanism(s) operative in this pulse width regime.
Rockwell, BA; Hammer, DX; Hopkins, RA; Payne, DJ; Toth, CA; Roach, WP; Druessel, JJ; Kennedy, PK; Amnotte, RE; Eilert, B; Phillips, S; Noojin, GD; Stolarski, DJ; Cain, C
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