Electrode systems for measuring cardiac impedances using optical transmembrane potential sensors and interstitial electrodes--theoretical design.
The cardiac electrical substrate is a challenge to direct measurement of its properties. Optical technology together with the capability to fabricate small electrodes at close spacings opens new possibilities. Here, those possibilities are explored from a theoretical viewpoint. It appears that with careful measurements from a well-designed set of electrodes one can obtain structural conductivities, separating intracellular from interstitial values, and longitudinal from transverse. Resting membrane resistance also can be obtained.
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