Challenges to manufacturing submicron, ultra-large scale integrated circuits
It is argued that the cost of manufacturing submicron, ultra-large-scale integration (ULSI) integrated circuits (ICs) (which is scaling upward at least in inverse proportion to the downward scaling of device feature sizes) is driven by a parameter budget crisis associated with the technological and complexity limits of IC design and fabrication. This budget crisis is defined for technologies associated with patterning, mechanical control, thermal treatments, particulates and contamination, defects, electrical parameters, and manufacturing. R&D priorities for silicon ULSI are identified and quantified, and the potential impact of some recent research results is discussed. It is pointed out that the R&D agenda to deal with the ULSI manufacturing budget crisis is enormous, and the semiconductor industry cannot perform all of it. Since the time for transferring new developments into production tools and technologies is five to seven years, it is concluded that critical funding decisions need to be made now for ULSI manufacturing science breakthroughs by the turn of the century.
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