The effect of substrate material on bias-enhanced diamond nucleation
Diamond has been deposited on polycrystalline copper substrates via bias-enhanced nucleation, a pre-treatment technique to promote nucleation in which a negative potential is applied to the substrate. The maximum nucleation density of the diamond on the copper substrates was approximately 1 × 106 cm-2. In contrast, typical nucleation densities of roughly 1 × 1011 cm-2 have been observed on silicon substrates, indicating that bias-enhanced nucleation is affected by the substrate material. Auger electron spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy indicated the presence of a highly graphitic surface carbon on the copper, which was not detected on silicon. Also, deconvolution of the Cu 2p 3 2 peak and micro-Auger depth profiling revealed this surface carbon to be 5-10 Å thick. The thickness and form of this surface carbon remained constant despite increasing bias-enhanced nucleation times. This is believed to be related to the slight enhancement of diamond nuclei compared with silicon. © 1994.
Wolter, SD; Stoner, BR; Glass, JT
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