Multiple power-density windows and their possible origin.
We have previously reported that in vitro exposure of chick forebrain tissue to 50-MHz radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation, amplitude modulated (AM) at 16 Hz, would enhance the efflux of calcium ions within only two power-density ranges: one from 1.44 to 1.67 mW/cm2, and the other including 3.64 mW/cm2. No effect on efflux occurred at 0.37, 0.72, 2.17, and 4.32 mW/cm2. We confirmed and extended these results by testing at another set of power densities, which included the range of the previous study. Forebrain tissue from 1-7-day-old chickens was labeled in vitro with radioactive calcium ions (30 min, at 37 degrees C), rinsed, placed in a physiological salt solution, and then exposed for 20 min to 50-MHz radiation, AM at 16 Hz, in a transverse electric and magnetic field (TEM) cell maintained at 37 degrees C. The solution was then assayed for radioactive calcium activity. A power-density series was tested. An enhanced efflux of calcium ions was found at 1.75, 3.85, 5.57, 6.82, 7.65, 7.77, and 8.82 mW/cm2; no change was observed at 0.75, 2.30, 4.50, 5.85, 7.08, 8.19, 8.66, 10.6, and 14.7 mW/cm2. Power density is converted to specific absorption rate (SAR) by 0.36 mW/kg per mW/cm2. Even the highest SAR tested (0.005 W/kg) is much too low to result in generalized heating of the sample and thus to be the underlying cause of the enhanced response. A hypothetical mechanism is proposed involving dynamic systems that may account for the power-density dependency as well as for part of the frequency dependency observed with both modulated RF radiation and extremely-low-frequency (ELF) fields.
Blackman, CF; Kinney, LS; House, DE; Joines, WT
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