The measured electrical properties of normal and malignant human tissues from 50 to 900 MHz.
The electrical conductivity and relative permittivity of malignant and normal human tissues were measured at frequencies from 50 to 900 MHz. The measurements were made between 23 and 25 degrees C using a network analyzer connected to a flat-ended coaxial probe that was pressed against the freshly excised tissue samples. The malignant tissues were of the following normal tissue origin: bladder, colon, kidney, liver, lung, lymph nodes, mammary gland, spleen, and testes. The normal tissues included: colon, kidney, liver, lung, mammary gland, and muscle. Normal tissue samples of bladder, lymph, spleen, and testes were not available. In general, at all frequencies tested, both conductivity and relative permittivity were greater in malignant tissue than in normal tissue of the same type. For tissues of the same type, the differences in electrical properties from normal to malignant were the least for kidney (about 6% and 4% average differences over the frequency range in permittivity and conductivity, respectively), and these differences were the greatest for mammary gland (about 233% and 577% average differences in permittivity and conductivity, respectively). To illustrate a potential use of these data in hyperthermia applications, frequency-selective heating of malignant tissue (modeled as a sphere) surrounded by host normal tissue is calculated from the measured electrical properties for certain tissues.
Joines, WT; Zhang, Y; Li, C; Jirtle, RL
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