T cell receptor-dependent activation of human lymphocytes through cell surface ganglioside GT1b: implications for innate immunity.
Gangliosides form a component of the glycosphingolipid-rich membrane microdomains recently shown to play an important role in receptor signal transduction. Specific gangliosides also serve as receptors for binding and internalization of bacterial toxins. In the course of characterizing the basis of the native tetanus toxin (TTx) reactivity of a human gamma delta T cell clone, we observed that transfer of the TCR was required to impart TTx reactivity on a TCR-negative recipient T cell. However, the reconstitution of toxin reactivity could be achieved regardless of the antigen specificity of the TCR chains. Further analysis showed that the T cell recognition of native TTx was dependent on the presence of its ganglioside receptor, GT1b, on the T cell surface. Incorporation of exogenous GT1b into plasma membrane conferred TTx reactivity on otherwise non-reactive T cells provided these cells expressed the TCR. Finally, reconstitution of TCR-negative Jurkat T cells with a CD8-CD3zeta chain chimera demonstrated that the cytoplasmic region of the CD3zeta chain was sufficient to couple ganglioside-mediated TTx binding to T cell activation. These data reveal a novel mode of TCR-dependent reactivity to a bacterial toxin that could mobilize a large subset of T cells, thus representing a form of innate immunity. Given the possibility that endogenous ligands may bind to cell surface gangliosides, regulation of their levels and topology on the cell surface may constitute an immunoregulatory mechanism.
Bukowski, JF; Roncarolo, MG; Spits, H; Krangel, MS; Morita, CT; Brenner, MB; Band, H
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