Phosphorylation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator.
Regulation of epithelial chloride flux, which is defective in patients with cystic fibrosis, may be mediated by phosphorylation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or protein kinase C (PKC). Part of the R-domain of CFTR (termed CF-2) was expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli. CF-2 was phosphorylated on seryl residues by PKA, PKC, cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase I (CaM kinase I). Direct amino acid sequencing and peptide mapping of CF-2 revealed that serines 660, 700, 737, and 813 as well as serine 768, serine 795, or both were phosphorylated by PKA and PKG, and serines 686 and 790 were phosphorylated by PKC. CFTR was phosphorylated in vitro by PKA, PKC, or PKG on the same sites that were phosphorylated in CF-2. Kinetic analysis of phosphorylation of CF-2 and of synthetic peptides confirmed that these sites were excellent substrates for PKA, PKC, or PKG. CFTR was immunoprecipitated from T84 cells labeled with 32Pi. Its phosphorylation was stimulated in response to agents that activated either PKA or PKC. Peptide mapping confirmed that CFTR was phosphorylated at several sites identified in vitro. Thus, regulation of CFTR is likely to occur through direct phosphorylation of the R-domain by protein kinases stimulated by different second messenger pathways.
Picciotto, MR; Cohn, JA; Bertuzzi, G; Greengard, P; Nairn, AC
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