Polarized expression of cAMP-activated chloride channels in isolated epithelial cells.
We have described a preparation of Necturus maculosus gallbladder (NGB) epithelium yielding isolated cells that retain structural and functional polarity ("figure-eight" cells). These cells have a normal membrane voltage and remain polarized for several hours after isolation. Apical and basolateral membrane domains are differentially labeled with hydrophobic fluorescent dyes; freeze-fracture electron microscopy reveals two distinct membrane domains separated by tight junctions; ZO-1, Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE3), and Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase are present in the junctional, apical, and basolateral region, respectively; and cell-attached patch-clamp experiments reveal different K+ currents in the two membrane domains [R. J. Torres, G. A. Altenberg, J. A. Copello, G. Zampighi, and L. Reuss, Am. J. Physiol. 270 (Cell Physiol. 39): C1864-C1874, 1996]. Here, we show that NGB epithelial cells express a protein cross-reactive with an antibody against human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In figure-eight cells, immunoreactivity was restricted to the apical membrane domain. Using intracellular microelectrodes and a novel method of regional superfusion, we found that control cells have high K+ conductances in both membranes and a small basolateral Cl- conductance, similar to findings in the epithelium. Activation of adenylate cyclase with forskolin elicited a large apical membrane Cl- conductance and membrane depolarization. Whole cell patch-clamp studies yielded a forskolin-activated linear Cl- current, with high Cl-/aspartate selectivity. In conclusion, 1) figure-eight cells maintain the conductive membrane properties present in the epithelium, including polarized expression of adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-activated Cl- channels, and 2) the cAMP-activated Cl- conductance is underlied by a CFTR homologue.
Torres, RJ; Altenberg, GA; Cohn, JA; Reuss, L
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