HIV-inducing factor in cervicovaginal secretions is associated with bacterial vaginosis in HIV-1-infected women.
OBJECTIVE: Certain cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid samples obtained from HIV-1-infected and uninfected women stimulate in vitro HIV-1 replication. This activity, HIV-inducing factor (HIF), changes when CVL fluid is heated. We sought to confirm a previous observation that HIF was associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). METHODS: HIF was measured in unheated and heated CVL fluid obtained from HIV-1-infected women and compared with the presence of BV by Nugent scores, other genital tract conditions, and cervicovaginal HIV-1 shedding. RESULTS: Among the 295 women studied, 54% of CVL samples had HIF activity and 21% showed heat-stable HIF activity. In adjusted logistic regression, heat-stable HIF was associated with BV (odds ratio [OR]=51.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.0, 530.7) and with intermediate flora (OR=43.3, 95% CI: 3.6, 521.1); heat-labile HIF was not associated with BV. Neither heat-stable nor heat-labile HIF was associated with other cervicovaginal conditions nor, after controlling for plasma viral load, with genital tract HIV-1 shedding. CONCLUSION: We confirmed the association of HIF with BV and attribute it to the heat-stable component. Heat-stable activity is also associated, although less strongly, with intermediate vaginal flora. We propose that heat-stable HIF is a result of products of BV-associated bacteria.
Cohn, JA; Hashemi, FB; Camarca, M; Kong, F; Xu, J; Beckner, SK; Kovacs, AA; Reichelderfer, PS; Spear, GT
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)