Regulation of glutamate and aspartate release from slices of the hippocampal CA1 area: effects of adenosine and baclofen.
Glutamate and/or aspartate is the probable transmitter released from synaptic terminals of the CA3-derived Schaffer collateral, commissural, and ipsilateral associational fibers in area CA1 of the rat hippocampal formation. Slices of the CA1 area were employed to test the effects of adenosine- and gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA)-related compounds on the release of glutamate and aspartate from this projection. Under the conditions of these experiments, the release of glutamate and aspartate evoked by 50 mM K+ was more than 90% Ca2+-dependent and originated predominantly from the CA3-derived pathways. Adenosine reduced the K+-evoked release of glutamate and aspartate by a maximum of about 60%, but did not affect the release of GABA. This action was reversed by 1 microM 8-phenyltheophylline. The order of potency for adenosine analogues was as follows: L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine greater than N6-cyclohexyladenosine greater than D-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine approximately equal to 2-chloroadenosine greater than adenosine much greater than 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine. 8-Phenyltheophylline (10 microM) by itself enhanced glutamate/aspartate release, whereas dipyridamole alone depressed release. These results support the view that adenosine inhibits transmission at Schaffer collateral-commissural-ipsilateral associational synapses mainly by reducing transmitter release and that these effects involve the activation of an A1 receptor. Neither adenosine, L-N6-phenylisopropyladenosine, nor 8-phenyltheophylline affected the release of glutamate or aspartate evoked by 10 microM veratridine. The differing effects of adenosine compounds on release evoked by K+ and veratridine suggest that A1 receptor activation either inhibits Ca2+ influx through the voltage-sensitive channels or interferes with a step subsequent to Ca2+ entry that is coupled to the voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels in an obligatory fashion. Neither baclofen nor any other agent active at GABAB or GABAA receptors affected glutamate or aspartate release evoked by elevated K+ or veratridine. Therefore, either baclofen does not inhibit transmission at these synapses by depressing transmitter release or else it does so in a way that cannot be detected when a chemical depolarizing agent is employed.
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