Regulation of glutamate and aspartate release from the Schaffer collaterals and other projections of CA3 hippocampal pyramidal cells.
Excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS can be modulated by endogenous substances and metabolic states that alter release of the transmitter, usually glutamate and/or aspartate. To explore this issue, we have studied the release of endogenous glutamate and aspartate from synaptic terminals of the CA3-derived Schaffer collateral, commissural and ipsilateral associational fibers in slices of hippocampal area CA1. These terminals release glutamate and aspartate in about a 5:1 ratio. The release process is modulated by adenosine, by the transmitters themselves and by nerve terminal metabolism. Adenosine inhibits the release of both amino acids by acting upon an A1 receptor. The transmitters, once released, can regulate their further release by acting upon both an NMDA and a non-NMDA (quisqualate/kainate) receptor. Activation of the NMDA receptor enhances the release of both glutamate and aspartate, whereas activation of the non-NMDA receptor depresses the release of aspartate only. Superfusion of CA1 slices with a glucose-deficient medium increases the release of both amino acids and reduces the glutamate/aspartate ratio. These results have implications for the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CA1 area and for the mechanism of hypoglycemic damage to CA1 pyramidal cells.
Nadler, JV; Martin, D; Bustos, GA; Burke, SP; Bowe, MA
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