Reproductive factors in relation to breast cancer characterized by p53 protein expression (United States).
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential etiologic heterogeneity of breast cancer by examining whether associations with reproductive and other personal characteristics differed by p53 protein expression status. METHODS: Data from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study, a population-based, case-control study of 861 cases and 790 controls, were utilized. Immunohistochemical staining for the p53 protein was performed on 638 archived tumor specimens; 46% of cases were classified as p53+. Two separate unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for p53+ and p53- breast cancer relative to controls for reproductive and other personal characteristics. Analyses were performed separately for younger (< or = 45 years) and older (>45 years) women. RESULTS: Risk factor profiles largely overlapped for p53+ and p53- breast cancer, with the exception of oral contraceptive (OC) use among younger women and a family history of breast cancer. Prolonged OC use was more strongly associated with p53+ breast cancer [OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.2-8.1) than p53- breast cancer (OR 1.3 (95% CI: 0.6-3.2)] among younger women only. A first-degree family history of breast cancer was associated with p53+ breast cancer among younger women [OR 1.5 (95% CI: 1.0-2.2)] and older women [OR 1.4 (95% CI: 0.9-2.3)], but not p53- breast cancer in either age-group. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide little evidence of breast cancer heterogeneity as classified by p53 expression status. However, although not statistically significant, OC use among younger women and family history of breast cancer may operate through a pathway involving p53 alterations to increase risk of breast cancer.
Furberg, H; Millikan, RC; Geradts, J; Gammon, MD; Dressler, LG; Ambrosone, CB; Newman, B
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