Phase I evaluation of prolonged-infusion gemcitabine with fludarabine for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated duration of infusion of gemcitabine at 10 mg/m(2)/min in combination with fludarabine at 25 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days in the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eighteen patients with relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia were enrolled. The median age was 54.5 years (range, 21-80 years). Patients received a 30-min infusion of fludarabine at 25 mg/m(2) daily for 5 days. i.v. gemcitabine was given as a single infusion at 10 mg/m(2)/min with the duration adjusted following a modified continuous reassessment method. RESULTS: After 18 patients, the maximum recommended duration of infusion of gemcitabine in combination with fludarabine was selected as a 15-h infusion given at 10 mg/m(2)/min (9,000 mg/m(2)). Severe stomatitis or esophagitis was the most common nonhematological dose-limiting toxicity. Myelosuppression was universal. Febrile neutropenia was common, and 3 of 18 (17%) patients developed bacteremia. Occasional nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea was also reported. There were three complete responses and two partial responses for an overall response rate of 28%. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged-infusion gemcitabine at a fixed dose rate of 10 mg/m(2)/min for 15 h with 25 mg/m(2)/day fludarabine for 5 days is a tolerable induction regimen for relapsed or refractory leukemia. Stomatitis, esophagitis, febrile neutropenia, and myelosuppression should be anticipated; however, this regimen may be beneficial in patients with relapsed or refractory leukemia.
Rizzieri, DA; Ibom, VK; Moore, JO; DeCastro, CM; Rosner, GL; Adams, DJ; Foster, T; Payne, N; Thompson, M; Vredenburgh, JJ; Gasparetto, C; Long, GD; Chao, NJ; Gockerman, JP
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