Sensitivity of hyperthermia trial outcomes to temperature and time: implications for thermal goals of treatment.
PURPOSE: In previous work we have found that the cumulative minutes of treatment for which 90% of measured intratumoral temperatures (T90) exceeded 39.5 degrees C was highly associated with complete response of superficial tumors. Similarly, the cumulative time for which 50% of intratumoral temperatures (T50) exceeded 41.5 degrees C was highly associated with the presence of > 80% necrosis in soft tissue sarcomas resected after radiotherapy and hyperthermia. In the present work we have calculated the time for isoeffective treatments with T90 = 43 degrees C and T50 = 43 degrees C, respectively, using published thermal isoeffective dose formulae. The purpose of these calculations was to determine the sensitivity of treatment outcome to variations in thermal isoeffective dose. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The basis for the calculations were the thermal parameters and treatment outcomes in three patient populations: 44 patients with moderate or high grade soft tissue sarcoma treated preoperatively with hyperthermia and radiation; 105 patients with superficial tumors treated with hyperthermia and radiation, and 59 patients with deep tumors treated with hyperthermia and radiation. RESULTS: The thermal dose values calculated are strongly associated with outcome in multivariate logistic regression analysis. Simple dose-response equations result from the analysis, and we use these equations to assess the sensitivity of outcome upon variations in thermal dose. This information, in turn, allows us to estimate the number of patients required in Phase II and III trials of hyperthermia and radiation therapy. CONCLUSIONS: For regimens of 5 to 10 hyperthermia treatments, improvements in median T90 (superficial tumors) and T50 (deep tumors) parameters by 1.2-1.5 degrees C could result in response rates high enough (compared to radiotherapy alone) to justify Phase III trials. A similar improvement in response rates would require an increase in overall duration of treatment by a factor of 3 to 5. This would be difficult to achieve while also avoiding thermal tolerance induction. Achieving these temperature goals may be possible with improvements in hyperthermia technology. Alternatively, there may be ways to increase the sensitivity of cells to temperatures that can be achieved currently, such as pH reduction or chemosensitization.
Oleson, JR; Samulski, TV; Leopold, KA; Clegg, ST; Dewhirst, MW; Dodge, RK; George, SL
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