Dose escalation studies of cytarabine, daunorubicin, and etoposide with and without multidrug resistance modulation with PSC-833 in untreated adults with acute myeloid leukemia younger than 60 years: final induction results of Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9621.
PURPOSE: P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is strongly inhibited by PSC-833. A chemotherapy dose-escalation study was performed with PSC-833 in patients younger than 60 years with untreated acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical rather than pharmacokinetic end points were used to develop two induction therapies containing drugs susceptible to Pgp-mediated efflux and associated with comparable toxicities at the maximum-tolerated doses. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 410 patients were enrolled. Fifteen induction regimens containing variable doses of daunorubicin (DNR) and etoposide (ETOP) and fixed doses of cytarabine were evaluated with (ADEP) or without (ADE) a fixed dose of PSC-833. RESULTS: Doses selected for phase III testing were DNR 90 mg/m(2) and ETOP 100 mg/m(2) in ADE, and DNR and ETOP each 40 mg/m(2) in ADEP. Intolerable mucosal toxicity occurred at higher doses of ADEP. Although the design of this study precludes direct comparisons, there was an apparent advantage for receiving ADEP with respect to disease-free and overall survival in patients < or = 45 years old, despite the significantly lower doses of DNR and ETOP given in ADEP compared with ADE. CONCLUSION: A large clinical data set was used to develop induction regimens containing two drugs susceptible to Pgp-mediated efflux, with and without an inhibitor of Pgp function. The chosen doses have comparable antileukemia activity and toxicity, making them suitable for use in a phase III comparative study of induction chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia younger than 60 years. That trial will also clarify whether patients < or = 45 years old are especially likely to benefit from Pgp inhibition during induction therapy.
Kolitz, JE; George, SL; Dodge, RK; Hurd, DD; Powell, BL; Allen, SL; Velez-Garcia, E; Moore, JO; Shea, TC; Hoke, E; Caligiuri, MA; Vardiman, JW; Bloomfield, CD; Larson, RA; Cancer and Leukemia Group B,
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