Induction of intracellular cAMP by a synthetic retroviral envelope peptide: a possible mechanism of immunopathogenesis in retroviral infections.
A synthetic heptadecapeptide, CKS-17, represents the highly conserved amino acid sequences occurring within the transmembrane envelope protein of many animal and human retroviruses. CKS-17 has been demonstrated to exhibit suppressive properties for numerous immune functions. We have recently shown that CKS-17 acts as an immunomodulatory epitope causing an imbalance of human type 1 and type 2 cytokine production and suppression of cell-mediated immunities. cAMP, an intracellular second messenger, plays an important role in regulation of cytokine biosynthesis--i.e., elevation of intracellular cAMP levels selectively inhibits type 1 cytokine production but has no effect or enhances type 2 cytokine production. Here, we demonstrate that CKS-17 induces dramatic rises in the intracellular cAMP levels of a human monocyte cell line and of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. A peptide corresponding to the reverse sequence of CKS-17, used as control, has no effect on intracellular cAMP levels. The cAMP-inducing ability of CKS-17 is significantly blocked by SQ-22536, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase. These results indicate that CKS-17, a highly conserved component of the transmembrane proteins of immunosuppressive retroviruses, induces increased intracellular levels of cAMP via activation of adenylate cyclase and suggest that this retroviral envelope peptide may differentially modulate type 1 and type 2 cytokine production through elevation of intracellular cAMP levels.
Haraguchi, S; Good, RA; James-Yarish, M; Cianciolo, GJ; Day, NK
Volume / Issue
Start / End Page
Pubmed Central ID
International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)