Immunosuppressive retroviral peptides: immunopathological implications for immunosuppressive influences of retroviral infections.
Studies of the effects of retroviruses on the immune system, which date back through thirty years of investigations, are reviewed. In the earliest published studies in the 1960s, it was demonstrated that mice infected with oncogenic viruses were immunosuppressed. Since then, numerous articles have been published describing profound immunodeficiencies observed in vivo in humans infected with human immunodeficiency virus and in animals such as cats infected with the feline immunodeficiency virus. In vitro investigations have shown that inactivated retroviruses or transmembrane envelope protein p15E as well as a synthetic 17-amino acid peptide (CKS-17) impressively conserved within the transmembrane envelope protein of several animal or human retroviruses are highly immunosuppressive. More recently, dysfunction of cytokines produced by CKS-17 at both a cellular and molecular level have been found to mimic influences observed in vivo in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. CKS-17 has also been shown to induce cAMP in vitro. The significance of these observations to understanding the immunological disturbances observed in malignancy, cytokine biosynthesis, and modulations of immune functions through cAMP is discussed.
Haraguchi, S; Good, RA; Cianciolo, GJ; Engelman, RW; Day, NK
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