Individual bioequivalence testing under 2x3 designs.
In recent years, as more generic drug products become available, it is a concern not only whether generic drug products that have been approved based on the regulation of average bioequivalence will have the same quality, safety and efficacy as that of the brand-name drug product, but also whether the approved generic drug products can be used interchangeably. In its recent draft guidance, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that individual bioequivalence (IBE) be assessed using the method proposed by Hyslop, Hsuan, and Holder to address drug switchability. The FDA suggests that a 2x4 cross-over design be considered for assessment of IBE, while a 2x3 cross-over design may be used as an alternative design to reduce the length and cost of the study. Little or no information regarding the statistical procedures under 2x3 cross-over designs is discussed in the guidance. In this paper, a detailed statistical procedure for assessment of IBE under 2x3 cross-over designs is derived. The main purpose of this paper, however, is to derive an IBE test under an alternative 2x3 design and show that the resulting IBE test is better than that under a 2x3 cross-over design and is comparable to or even better than that under a 2x4 cross-over design. Our conclusions are supported by theoretical considerations and empirical results. Furthermore, a method of determining the sample sizes required for IBE tests to reach a given level of power is proposed.
Chow, S-C; Shao, J; Wang, H
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