Seasonal variations in air pollution particle-induced inflammatory mediator release and oxidative stress.
Health effects associated with particulate matter (PM) show seasonal variations. We hypothesized that these heterogeneous effects may be attributed partly to the differences in the elemental composition of PM. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were exposed to equal mass of coarse [PM with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 microm (PM(2.5-10)], fine (PM(2.5)), and ultrafine (PM(<0.1)) ambient PM from Chapel Hill, North Carolina, during October 2001 (fall) and January (winter), April (spring), and July (summer) 2002. Production of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured. Coarse PM was more potent in inducing cytokines, but not ROSs, than was fine or ultrafine PM. In AMs, the October coarse PM was the most potent stimulator for IL-6 release, whereas the July PM consistently stimulated the highest ROS production measured by dichlorofluorescein acetate and dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR). In NHBE cells, the January and the October PM were consistently the strongest stimulators for IL-8 and ROS, respectively. The July PM increased only ROS measured by DHR. PM had minimal effects on chemiluminescence. Principal-component analysis on elemental constituents of PM of all size fractions identified two factors, Cr/Al/Si/Ti/Fe/Cu and Zn/As/V/Ni/Pb/Se, with only the first factor correlating with IL-6/IL-8 release. Among the elements in the first factor, Fe and Si correlated with IL-6 release, whereas Cr correlated with IL-8 release. These positive correlations were confirmed in additional experiments with PM from all 12 months. These results indicate that elemental constituents of PM may in part account for the seasonal variations in PM-induced adverse health effects related to lung inflammation.
Becker, S; Dailey, LA; Soukup, JM; Grambow, SC; Devlin, RB; Huang, Y-CT
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