Thyroid hormone differentially regulates development of beta-adrenergic receptors, adenylate cyclase and ornithine decarboxylase in rat heart and kidney.
In mature animals, thyroid hormone produces parallel up-regulation of beta-adrenergic receptor binding sites and their linkage to adenylate cyclase; during development, these same processes may be critical in establishing the set-point for subsequent adrenergic reactivity. In the current study, we administered triiodothyronine to neonatal rats for the first five days postpartum and evaluated [125I]pindolol binding capabilities and adenylate cyclase activity in membrane preparations from heart and kidney. In the heart, hyperthyroidism elicited an initial increase in receptor density, with subsequent deficits and an eventual return to normal values by young adulthood. In contrast, the ability of isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agonist, to stimulate adenylate cyclase was enhanced regardless of whether receptor numbers were increased or decreased; the same effects were also present for basal adenylate cyclase activity and non-receptor-mediated stimulation by forskolin. Enhanced cyclase activity involved both increases in the magnitude of response as well as accelerated onset of the postweaning peak of enzyme activity, results which suggest a direct impact of thyroid status on the ontogenetic expression of adenylate cyclase itself. The kidney, which possesses less efficient beta-receptor coupling to adenylate cyclase in the neonate, was less drastically affected by triiodothyronine for either beta-receptor binding sites or enzyme activity. As we had previously shown that neonatal hyperthyroidism uncouples beta-receptors from growth-related enzymes, such as ornithine decarboxylase, we also evaluated whether the promotion of adenylate cyclase responses was mechanistically linked to effect on ornithine decarboxylase; administration of cyclic AMP analogs to 5 days-old rats led to inhibition of the enzyme in the heart, whereas the same treatment in 9 days-old animals was ineffective. These data suggest that thyroid hormone differentially regulates the development of beta-receptors as well as adenylate cyclase and ornithine decarboxylase, with preferential effects on tissues, such as the heart, that already possess efficient linkage of the receptors to cell transduction mechanisms at birth.
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