Regulation of adrenal chromaffin cell development by the central monoaminergic system: differential control of norepinephrine and epinephrine levels and secretory responses.
In the mature rat, reflex sympathetic stimulation by insulin-induced hypoglycemia resulted in profound depletion of adrenal epinephrine, and to a lesser extent, norepinephrine. In the developing rat, insulin evoked little or no secretory response from the adrenals prior to 1 week of age. By 7 days, a moderate depletion of epinephrine was seen and the magnitude of the response increased with age. In contrast, during the first 3 weeks of postnatal life, insulin failed to deplete norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla and in fact, produced an increase. This chiefly resulted from de novo biosynthesis of the amine, as the rise was blocked by alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. These results suggest that the ontogeny of the two chromaffin cell types (norepinephrine and epinephrine-containing) in the adrenals and the maturation of their secretory responses are under differential regulation. Because descending supraspinal catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems have been implicated to play key roles in regulating adrenomedullary function, the ontogeny of the sympatho-adrenomedullary axis was evaluated after neonatal central lesioning with 6-hydroxydopamine or 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine. 6-Hydroxydopamine resulted in a preferential elevation of epinephrine in the developing adrenals as well as an increase in the responsiveness of the adrenals to reflex stimulation by insulin; the mature secretory pattern was obtained as early as at 4 days postnatally for epinephrine and 9 days for norepinephrine. In contrast, 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine led to a preferential reduction of basal adrenal norepinephrine content.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Lau, C; Ross, LL; Whitmore, WL; Slotkin, TA
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