Does the developmental neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos involve glial targets? Macromolecule synthesis, adenylyl cyclase signaling, nuclear transcription factors, and formation of reactive oxygen in C6 glioma cells.
The widespread use of chlorpyrifos (CPF) has raised major concerns about its potential to cause fetal or neonatal neurobehavioral damage, even at doses that do not evoke acute toxicity. CPF has been shown to inhibit replication of brain cells, to elicit alterations in neurotrophic signaling governing cell differentiation and apoptosis, and to evoke oxidative stress. However, the specific cell types targeted by CPF have not been clarified, an issue of vital importance in establishing the boundaries of the critical period in which the developing brain is vulnerable. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of CPF on C6 glioma cells, a well-established glial model. In undifferentiated C6 cells, CPF inhibited DNA synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, with greater potency than had been seen previously with neuronal cell lines. Just as found after in vivo CPF treatment or with neuronal cell lines, the effects on cell replication were independent of cholinergic stimulation, as cholinergic antagonists did not block CPF-induced inhibition. CPF interfered with cell signaling mediated through adenylyl cyclase at the level of G-protein function; the effects again were greater in undifferentiated C6 cells but were still detectable in differentiating cells. In contrast, differentiation enhanced the ability of CPF to elicit the formation of reactive oxygen species and to evoke deficits in Sp1, a nuclear transcription factor essential for differentiation. These results indicate that glial-type cells are targeted by CPF through the same multiple mechanisms that have been demonstrated for the effects of CPF on brain development in vivo. Because glial development continues long after the conclusion of neurogenesis, and given that CPF targets events in both glial cell replication and the later stages of differentiation, the vulnerable period for developmental neurotoxicity of CPF is likely to extend well into childhood.
Garcia, SJ; Seidler, FJ; Crumpton, TL; Slotkin, TA
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