Cholinergic systems in brain development and disruption by neurotoxicants: nicotine, environmental tobacco smoke, organophosphates.

Journal Article (Journal Article;Review)

Acetylcholine and other neurotransmitters play unique trophic roles in brain development. Accordingly, drugs and environmental toxicants that promote or interfere with neurotransmitter function evoke neurodevelopmental abnormalities by disrupting the timing or intensity of neurotrophic actions. The current review discusses three exposure scenarios involving acetylcholine systems: nicotine from maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and exposure to the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF). All three have long-term, adverse effects on specific processes involved in brain cell replication and differentiation, synaptic development and function, and ultimately behavioral performance. Many of these effects can be traced to the sequence of cellular events surrounding the trophic role of acetylcholine acting on its specific cellular receptors and associated signaling cascades. However, for chlorpyrifos, additional noncholinergic mechanisms appear to be critical in establishing the period of developmental vulnerability, the sites and type of neural damage, and the eventual outcome. New findings indicate that developmental neurotoxicity extends to late phases of brain maturation including adolescence. Novel in vitro and in vivo exposure models are being developed to uncover heretofore unsuspected mechanisms and targets for developmental neurotoxicants.

Full Text

Duke Authors

Cited Authors

  • Slotkin, TA

Published Date

  • July 15, 2004

Published In

Volume / Issue

  • 198 / 2

Start / End Page

  • 132 - 151

PubMed ID

  • 15236950

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0041-008X

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

  • 10.1016/j.taap.2003.06.001


  • eng

Conference Location

  • United States