Comparative analysis of the ATP-binding sites of Hsp90 by nucleotide affinity cleavage: a distinct nucleotide specificity of the C-terminal ATP-binding site.
The 90-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that assists both in ATP-independent sequestration of damaged proteins, and in ATP-dependent folding of numerous targets, such as nuclear hormone receptors and protein kinases. Recent work from our lab and others has established the existence of a second, C-terminal nucleotide binding site besides the well characterized N-terminal, geldanamycin-sensitive ATP-binding site. The cryptic C-terminal site becomes open only after the occupancy of the N-terminal site. Our present work demonstrates the applicability of the oxidative nucleotide affinity cleavage in the site-specific characterization of nucleotide binding proteins. We performed a systematic analysis of the nucleotide binding specificity of the Hsp90 nucleotide binding sites. N-terminal binding is specific to adenosine nucleotides with an intact adenine ring. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides and diadenosine polyphosphate alarmones are specific N-terminal nucleotides. The C-terminal binding site is much more unspecific-it interacts with both purine and pirimidine nucleotides. Efficient binding to the C-terminal site requires both charged residues and a larger hydrophobic moiety. GTP and UTP are specific C-terminal nucleotides. 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-nucleotides (TNP-ATP, TNP-GTP) and pyrophosphate access the C-terminal binding site without the need for an occupied N-terminal site. Our data provide additional evidence for the dynamic domain-domain interactions of Hsp90, give hints for the design of novel types of specific Hsp90 inhibitors, and raise the possibility that besides ATP, other small molecules might also interact with the C-terminal nucleotide binding site in vivo.
Soti, C; Vermes, A; Haystead, TAJ; Csermely, P
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