Roles of the AMP-activated and cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases in the adrenaline-induced inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in rat adipocytes.
1. In isolated rat adipocytes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase is inactivated by treatment of the cells with adrenaline or the beta-agonist isoproterenol, but not by the alpha-agonist phenylephrine. The inactivation is stable during purification in the presence of protein phosphatase inhibitors, and is associated with a 30-40% increase in the labelling of enzyme isolated from 32P-labelled cells. 2. Increased phosphorylation occurs within peptide T1, which was identified by sequencing to be the peptide Ser-Ser77-Met-Ser79-Gly-Leu-His-Leu-Val-Lys, containing Ser-77 (phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase) and Ser-79 (phosphorylated by the AMP-activated protein kinase). Analysis of the release of radioactivity as free phosphate during Edman degradation of peptide T1 revealed that all of the phosphate was in Ser-79 in both basal and hormone- or agonist-stimulated cells. Treatment of adipocytes with various agents which activate cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase by receptor-independent mechanisms (forskolin, cyclic AMP analogues, isobutylmethylxanthine) also produced inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and increased phosphorylation at Ser-79. 3. The (Rp)-[thio]phosphate analogue of cyclic AMP, which is an antagonist of binding of cyclic AMP to the regulatory subunit of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, opposes the effect of adrenaline on phosphorylation and inactivation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Together with the effects of isobutylmethylxanthine and the stimulatory cyclic AMP analogues, this strongly indicates that cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase is an essential component of the signal transduction pathway, although clearly it does not directly phosphorylate acetyl-CoA carboxylase. 4. As shown by okadaic acid inhibition, greater than 95% of the acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphatase activity in extracts of rat adipocytes or liver is accounted for by protein phosphatase-2A, with less than 5% attributable to protein phosphatase-1. Inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 via phosphorylation of inhibitor-1 is therefore unlikely to be the mechanism by which cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase indirectly increases phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Various other potential mechanisms are discussed.
Haystead, TA; Moore, F; Cohen, P; Hardie, DG
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