Insulin and phorbol ester stimulate phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase at similar sites in isolated adipocytes. Lack of correspondence with sites phosphorylated on the purified enzyme by protein kinase C.
1. The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulates fatty acid synthesis from glucose in isolated adipocytes with a half-maximal effect at 0.72 microM. In seven batches of cells, the maximal effects of TPA and insulin were 8.5 +/- 1.1-fold and 27.1 +/- 2.1-fold respectively. Insulin also stimulated fatty acid synthesis from acetate 8.9 +/- 0.5-fold (three experiments), but TPA did not significantly increase fatty acid synthesis from this precursor. 2. In contrast to insulin, TPA treatment of isolated adipocytes did not produce an activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase which was detectable in crude cell extracts. 3. The total phosphate content of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, isolated from adipocytes in the presence of protein phosphatase inhibitors, was estimated by 32P-labelling experiments to be 2.6 +/- 0.1 (5), 3.4 +/- 0.2 (5), and 3.8 +/- 0.2 (3) mol/mol subunit for enzyme from control, insulin- and TPA-treated cells respectively. Insulin and TPA stimulated phosphorylation within the same two tryptic peptides. 4. Purified acetyl-CoA carboxylase is phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C at serine residues which are recovered in three tryptic peptides, i.e. peptide T1, which appears to be identical with the peptide Ser-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Gly-Leu-His-Leu-Val-Lys phosphorylated by cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase, and peptides Ta and Tb, which have the sequences Ile-Asp-Ser(P)-Gln-Arg and Lys-Ile-Asp-Ser(P)-Gln-Arg respectively, and which appear to be derived from a single site by alternative cleavages. None of these correspond to the peptides whose 32P-labelling increase in response to insulin or TPA. Peptides Ta/Tb are not significantly phosphorylated in isolated adipocytes, even after insulin or TPA treatment. Peptide T1 is phosphorylated in isolated adipocytes, but this phosphorylation is not altered by insulin or TPA. 5. These results show that TPA mimics the effect of insulin on phosphorylation, but not activation, of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, i.e. that these two events can be dissociated. In addition, phorbol ester stimulates phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in isolated adipocytes, but this is not catalyzed directly by protein kinase C, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase does not appear to be a physiological substrate for this kinase.
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