CD19, CD21, and CD22: multifaceted response regulators of B lymphocyte signal transduction.
B lymphocyte development and function depend upon the activity of intrinsic and B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-induced signals. These signals are interpreted, amplified, fine-tuned, or suppressed through the precise actions of specialized cell surface coreceptors, or "response regulators," that inform B cells of their extracellular environment. Important cell surface response regulators include the CD19/CD21 complex, CD22, and CD72. CD19 establishes a novel Src-family protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) amplification loop that regulates basal signaling thresholds and intensifies Src-family PTK activation following BCR ligation. In turn, CD22 limits the intensity of CD19-dependent, BCR-generated signals through the recruitment of potent phosphotyrosine and phosphoinositide phosphatases. Herein we discuss our current understanding of how CD19/CD21 and CD22 govern the emergence and intensity of BCR-mediated signals, and how alterations in these tightly controlled regulatory activities contribute to autoimmunity in mice and humans.
Poe, JC; Hasegawa, M; Tedder, TF
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