A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in metastatic renal cancer: a report of Cancer and Leukemia Group B protocol 90008.
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to verify previous reports of activity with gemcitabine plus a fluoropyrimidine in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer in a multiinstitutional setting. METHODS: Eligibility included a Zubrod performance status from 0 to 2, no prior gemcitabine or fluoropyrimidine therapy, and normal organ function. Patients received gemcitabine at a dose of 1000 mg/m2 on Days 1, 8, and 15 and capecitabine at a dose of 830 mg/m2 twice daily on Days 1 through 21 on a 28-day cycle with specified dose reductions for baseline renal insufficiency. The primary endpoint was the response rate, which was assessed every 8 weeks. The statistical plan tested the hypothesis that the response rate was 5% versus an alternative of 15%. RESULTS: Sixty patients were enrolled, and 4 of those patients never started treatment. Of the 56 evaluable patients, 79% of patients underwent prior nephrectomy, 75% of patients received prior systemic therapy, and 75% of patients had clear cell histology. Risk stratification revealed that 34%, 43%, and 16% of patients were in Risk Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Toxicity (graded according to the National Cancer Institute's Common Toxicity Criteria [version 2.0]) included Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia in 45% of patients, Grade 2 or greater fatigue in 32% of patients, Grade 2 or greater nausea in 29% of patients, Grade 2 or greater hand-foot reaction in 39% of patients, and Grade 2 or greater diarrhea in 22% of patients. Six patients responded (11%; 95% confidence interval, 4-22%), and the overall median survival was 14.5 months. CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine plus capecitabine had modest activity in patients with metastatic renal cancer, although the degree of activity and its associated toxicity would not support further evaluation in a Phase III trial of unselected patients. More focused investigations to identify patients most likely to benefit or to enhance activity with additional agents would be reasonable.
Stadler, WM; Halabi, S; Rini, B; Ernstoff, MS; Davila, E; Picus, J; Barrier, R; Small, EJ; Cancer and Leukemia Group B,
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