Nicardipine HCl: clinical experience in patients undergoing anaesthesia for intracranial aneurysm clipping.
Previous studies have reported haemodynamic interactions between dihydropyridine calcium antagonists and general anaesthesia. During anaesthesia for intracranial aneurysm surgery, we prospectively compared haemodynamic values obtained from 13 patients being treated with nicardipine HCl (0.15 mg.kg-1.hr-1 IV) for cerebral vasospasm against values obtained from 11 untreated controls. Prior to induction of anaesthesia, nicardipine-treated patients had significantly elevated mean +/- SD cardiac index (5.67 +/- 1.30 vs 3.99 +/- 0.73 L.min-1.m-2) while MAP (86 +/- 10 vs 99 +/- 14 mmHg) and systemic vascular resistance (647 +/- 227 vs 1141 +/- 404 dynes.sec-1.cm-5) were reduced. Heart rate, CVP, and PACWP were similar between groups. Anaesthesia induction and tracheal intubation resulted in similar haemodynamic values between groups with the exception of CVP (10 +/- 5 vs 5 +/- 2 mmHg) and PACWP (15 +/- 5 vs 8 +/- 3 mmHg) which were elevated in the nicardipine group (P less than 0.01). Mannitol infusion and deliberate hypotension resulted in nearly identical haemodynamic responses in both groups. Nicardipine-treated patients required more intravenous fluids during the operative procedure (2.4 +/- 0.3 L vs 1.5 +/- 0.4 L, P less than 0.05) and were less likely to require isoflurane supplementation to morphine sulphate/nitrous oxide anaesthesia (P less than 0.01). In summary, our experience with nicardipine HCl revealed no major untoward effects with respect to maintenance of intraoperative haemodynamic stability despite continuous antivasospasm therapy with this vasodilator.
Warner, DS; Sokoll, MD; Maktabi, M; Godersky, JC; Adams, HP
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