NMDA-induced apoptosis in mixed neuronal/glial cortical cell cultures: the effects of isoflurane and dizocilpine.
In animal models of severe ischemia, it has not been uniformly observed that anesthetics are protective. However, anesthetics have not been evaluated in the presence of a mild excitotoxic insult. We hypothesized that in the presence of a mild excitotoxic insult, 3 microm N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), isoflurane may prevent apoptotic cell death. Primary mixed neuronal/glial cultures were prepared from fetal rat brains. Mature cultures were exposed to dissolved isoflurane [0 mM, 0.4 mM (1.8 minimum alveolar concentration) or 1.6 mM (7 minimum alveolar concentration)] or dizocilpine (10 microM), and NMDA (0 or 3 microM) at 37 degrees C for 30 minutes. Apoptosis was assessed using terminal-deoxy-nucleotidyl end-nick labeling oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and caspases-3 and -9 activation assays. NMDA (3 muM) induced apoptosis in mixed neuronal/glial cell cultures. Apoptosis induced by 3 microm NMDA was caspase-3 but not caspase-9 mediated. In the presence of a mild excitotoxic insult, this investigation showed an attenuation of apoptotic cell death by dizocilpine, but not isoflurane.
Wise-Faberowski, L; Pearlstein, RD; Warner, DS
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