Evaluation of Right Ventricular Function During CABG: Transesophageal Echocardiographic Assessment of Hepatic Venous Flow Versus Conventional Right Ventricular Performance Indices.
The vulnerability of right ventricle (RV) to ischemic insult during cardiac surgery is being increasingly recognized. This study aims to evaluate right ventricular function by measuring hepatic venous flow (HVF) patterns using intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), and to compare HVF with other conventional two-dimensional echocardiographic and hemodynamic indices of RV performance. Patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were studied intraoperatively using a multiplane dual frequency 5/3.7-MHz phased array transducer, a pulmonary artery catheter, and an arterial catheter. Peak velocities and time velocity integrals of HVF pattern were studied. Peak systolic-diastolic ratio (S/D) of biphasic HVF and reverse flow ratio (% reverse flow/forward flow = % RF/FF) were also examined. Two-dimensional echocardiographic measurements included: (1) transverse plane long-axis (LA) and short-axis (SA) planimetered areas expressed as ratios; LA maximum major and minor-axis shortening fractions; (2) tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) ratio. All data were obtained after induction of anesthesia (stage 1), after sternotomy (stage 2), aftercardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (stage 3), and after sternal closure (stage 4). Pre-CPB all 35 patients had biphasic HVF by Doppler. In 31 patients peak S/D ratio was >1. After CPB, there was significant reduction in systolic forward flow (S wave), along with an increase in late systolic reverse flow (V wave) and an increase in % RF/FF. At this stage TAPSE ratio decreased (pre CPB 0.33 +/- 0.12 vs post CPB 0.30 +/- 0.11). There was simultaneous decrease in 2-D long-axis LA (pre CPB 0.52 +/- 0.11 vs post CPB 0.31 +/- 0.01) and max major axis LA (pre CPB 0.38 +/- 0.06 vs post CPB 0.31 +/- 0.11). Max major axis LA correlated significantly with changes in right atrial pressure (P < 0.05). Tricuspid annular motion diminished significantly at sternal closure. Hepatic systolic forward flow and TAPSE ratio can be an indirect measure of RV systolic functions in correlation with maximum major axis LA changes. Evaluation of HVF provides unique insight into right ventricular dynamics. It is an easy, safe, and sensitive method for assessing RV functions intraoperatively.
Mishra, M; Swaminathan, M; Malhotra, R; Mishra, A; Trehan, N
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