Reduction of pain and nausea after laparoscopic sterilization with bupivacaine, metoclopramide, scopolamine, ketorolac, and gastric suctioning.
To determine whether postoperative pain and nausea after laparoscopic sterilization can be reduced with a combination of bupivacaine, metoclopramide, scopolamine, ketorolac, and gastric suctioning.
Women undergoing outpatient laparoscopic sterilization were randomized to protocol management or nontreatment groups. Each patient received standard general endotracheal anesthesia. Protocol subjects received intramuscular ketorolac 60 mg and scopolamine 0.25 mg, intravenous metoclopramide 10 mg, and gastric suctioning; bupivacaine (2.5 mg/mL) with epinephrine (5 micrograms/mL) was injected at trocar sites and dripped onto the fallopian tubes. The nontreatment group served as controls. Visual analogue scales were used to evaluate pain and nausea (measured in millimeters). Demographic characteristics, postoperative requirements for analgesics and antiemetics, time to discharge, and unscheduled admission were also evaluated.
During a 7-month period, 71 women were enrolled. Protocol subjects (N = 35) reported pain severity of 27.9 +/- 19.1 mm (mean +/- standard deviation), whereas controls (N = 36) reported 59.3 +/- 23.3 mm (P < .001). Fourteen protocol patients requested additional pain medication, compared with 29 controls (P < .001). Protocol patients indicated a nausea severity of 9.9 +/- 18.7 mm, whereas the controls reported 38.8 +/- 35.5 mm (P < .001). Only one protocol patient required nausea medication, compared with nine controls (P < .02). Severity of pain correlated with severity of nausea (r = 0.38166, P < .001). Protocol patients were discharged from the outpatient surgery unit in 148.6 +/- 45.0 minutes, compared with 176.4 +/- 58.5 minutes for controls (P < .03).
This regimen reduced the severity of pain and nausea after outpatient laparoscopic sterilization. The need for additional analgesics and antiemetics was also reduced. Protocol patients were discharged earlier than controls. These benefits seem to accrue without significant risk. We believe that this regimen may also be useful in other ambulatory laparoscopic procedures.
Bradford, TH; Robertson, K; Norman, PF; Meeks, GR
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